Low Income Children
Poverty persists in many countries, causing family incomes to influence educational outcomes highly. Children from low-income families seem behind academically than others because they face numerous overwhelming challenges that affect their brains and undermine their school performance. Since they face these issues daily, they behave differently due to brain adaptation to suboptimal conditions.
Causes of Poor Performance among Low Income Children
Children from lower-income households face decreased readiness for school, safety and health problems, emotional and social challenges and acute and chronic stress, leading to poor school performance. School readiness requires physical wellness, appropriate motor development, cognitive skills and positivity towards new experiences among children. Poverty decreases most of these aspects depending on its incidence, duration, depth, timing and impact on the children’s parents and community. Low-income children also endure health and safety challenges such as insufficient health care, malnutrition and environmental hazards. They perform poorly in school than others because health and achievement complement each other since body cells need a healthy environment for optimal functioning. Since the three stressors besieged these children’s body cells frequently, growth trajectory slows down, leading to diminished ability to learn and concentrate properly.
Many low-income children also experience social and emotional instability due to the high prevalence of depression, teen motherhood and development of insecurities during early childhood, common among impoverished families. Children receive less sensitivity from the adults, causing their poor behaviour and performance in school. They may also experience acute and chronic stress resulting from trauma due to abuse or violence. Such high-level stress affects children’s emotional, psychological, physical and cognitive functioning, disturbing brain development and academic success.
Family incomes influence educational outcomes, so persistent socioeconomic disadvantage negatively impacts children’s school performance. Children from low-income families have lower scores on communication, concentration ability and numbers knowledge than others due to their daily challenges in their primary environments.